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Yes! In fact, this is a great way to enjoy homegrown vegetables if you live in a small space or the only sun in your yard is on the driveway.
You need a container that holds about five gallons of soil (or a five-gallon bucket of soil). You can grow almost anything in that. Smaller containers work too, but it's harder to keep them watered.
Like garden designs, containers come in all styles. I like the polycarbonates that look like terra cotta or stone, but are very light weight. But, I've used everything from an old bathtub to a whiskey barrel. Be creative! Just be sure to drill drainage holes if your container wasn't designed for growing plants.
The most important thing to do is invest in a good, loose potting soil. You'll want to fertilize your container garden every few weeks as well. Mulch the tops to hold moisture in and water when the soil is dry about 2” down.To save even more space, grow vertically. Maybe you just have a narrow strip in your yard, or you're on a patio and would like to create privacy and harvest lots of tomatoes in a container. For tomatoes and beans, use a trellis. You can even grow watermelon and cantaloupe on a trellis if you support the fruit. Use a section of pantyhose or onion sacks from the store to create a sling to hold the fruit up. Some people like this technique even in larger gardens to keep the fruit off the ground. Plants like cucumbers, squashes, and even Malabar spinach—the spinach we can grow in summer—look good trailing over a balcony or trained to climb up a metal teepee type of structure. Also, many growers are now presenting hybrids, including the fall plants, like lettuce, designed for compact growth in a container. Ask at your nursery for ideas. And don't forget to add a few herbs to the mix! Basil, oregano, parsley, rosemary and thyme are great in containers, along with cilantro and dill in the cooler months.